The clue, he contends, rest in the mysterious fourth cup that culminates the Jewish Passover meal. . And the fourth cup was the cup of consummation. And one of them asked, “Why would she keep this photograph?” And here’s how he explained it. Or does it not assert that Jesus’ sacrifice, precisely because of its “once for all” character, has become the one perfect and perpetual offering he continually presents in heaven on our behalf? For one thing, I noticed that my King, Priest, and paschal victim, in his “hour of glory” while suffering on the cross, made a profound gesture: “After this Jesus, knowing that all was now finished, said (to fulfill the Scripture), ‘I thirst.'”. First of all, as we read this text and as you read Biblical text, it’s always good to ask, “Where am I? Does this mean that Jesus’ “once for all” sacrifice is exclusively past? In this way John prepares his readers to understand how Jesus formed a new covenant family by means of his own Eucharistic sacrifice as High Priest and paschal victim. the Passover celebration in the upper room. In both cases, we need Jesus. Well if you have your Bibles, please turn to the fourteenth chapter of Mark’s gospel, found on page 850 if you’re using a pew Bible. And then the Passover concluded with the drinking of the fourth cup. And because of that, we’ll study this section here in Mark’s gospel when Jesus instituted what we’re going to observe later after we hear the preaching of God’s Word. And then the first part of the Hallel Psalms was sung – Psalms 113 to 115. Product Description. Moreover, the Mishnah is not known for an innovative approach to liturgical reforms. At the outset, the head of the household would begin by blessing the food with a very specific set blessing and drink the first cup of wine. Surely there is a connection here, but the connection seems less direct than does the primary link suggested by the Passover setting. So as you’re familiar with that, as we read this scene before us, three things stand out immediately about this Passover scene that then is where the Lord’s Supper is instituted. And he said to them, ‘This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many. Second, only John mentions that Jesus was stripped of a seamless linen tunic (19:23-24). Let’s drink the fourth cup together. We are to feast upon Jesus, the bread of life and our Passover Lamb. Indeed, Paul identifies this “cup of blessing” with the Eucharistic cup (1 Cor. 22:1ff; Luke 22:15ff).]. He fulfills everything that Lamb pointed to. Even clearer testimony is provided when Jesus declares, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you; he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. Then, at the very end, Jesus was offered “sour wine” (John 19:30; Matt.27:48; Mark 15:36; Luke 23:36). This verse reveals something significant. The scene is set pretty plainly. But something he said stuck with me. But before we do that, let me just notice two things in application. Then we read the tragic words in verse 18, “Truly I say to you, one of you will betray me, one who is eating with me.” All of them betrayed Him eventually, didn’t they? This memorial celebrated God’s deliverance of Israel from Egypt. What is this text teaching me about God? And as best as we can tell from historical documents and Jewish, rabbinical documents, documents that the rabbis wrote in the 1st century when Jesus would have celebrated this, the stewed fruit had the appearance of the kind of mortar that would have been used to make the bricks out of clay to remind them of their bondage in slavery and what God brought them out of. Incidentally, the synoptic Gospels often recount sayings of Jesus combining imagery of banquet feasts with his Kingdom glory (Matt. There were four promises there. And on the cross, Jesus drank the fourth cup. No attempt has been made, however, to alter the basic extemporaneous delivery style, or to produce a grammatically accurate, publication-ready manuscript conforming to an established style template. Listen to a sample from The Fourth Cup And there was a prayer, “Lord, make us worthy of the Messiah and to be Your people, the Messiah the Son of David in His seed.” And after that, rabbis record that there would be long discussions of God’s Word well into the evening and early morning hours and a general sense of celebration at who God was. And as they were reclining at table and eating, Jesus said, ‘Truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me, one who is eating with me.’ They began to be sorrowful and to say to him one after another, ‘Is it I?’ He said to them, ‘It is one of the twelve, one who is dipping bread into the dish with me. Thus, so long as I am not building my argument on a comprehensive identity of form between the two, I think I avoid any anachronism and remain on safe ground–indeed, the same safe ground as the vast majority of exegetes (e.g. There’s the betrayer who, like Peter, betrays Jesus. It is almost as though Jesus meant not to drink what he was expected to drink. We were buried with Him. What is it saying to me?” And this is one of those texts where it’s very easy to answer the, “Where am I in this text?” question. Thank You, Lord of hosts and our Host, for Your Word. My mind began racing ahead in search of a solution. 1:31; 8:5; 14:1) as well as husband and wife (Jer. Unlike priests in the Old Testament, Jesus does not make daily offerings of distinct sacrifices (Heb. And when He gave it to His disciples originally, He is saying to them, “Don’t be afraid. Such language reflects a solid belief in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. In sum, Calvary begins with the Eucharist and the Eucharist ends with Calvary. “Sacraments bore me,” I replied sharply. On the other hand, “every high priest is appointed to offer gifts and sacrifices; hence it is necessary for this priest also to have something to offer” (Heb. It would have been better for him if he had not been born.” That’s human responsibility. I got the urge to write about the Scripture study which led me into a Catholic understanding of the Holy Eucharist (and eventually into the Catholic Church) about five years ago. That’s the cup the Savior prayed over and sweat great drops of blood, as it were. And the difference is, with God, it makes perfect sense. supports HTML5 video, Sermon by And that’s why He didn’t drink the fourth cup. Let’s not sanitize that. He is saying, “There is not a chance that this does not come to pass. 13:10). Dr. Scott Hahn explains Christ's Paschal sacrifice on the cross as the fulfillment of the traditional fourth cup used in the celebration of Passover, drawing symbolic parallels to the Last Supper and Christ's death on Calvary. Where we are in this text? And I suspect there’s nobody out there that does either. Let me walk you through it very quickly. Let’s pray before we hear God’s Word. Notice what he prayed: “And going a little farther, he fell on his face and prayed, ‘My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me; nevertheless, not as I will, but thou wilt'” (Matt. 7:27; 9:12, 26; 10:10). [Critics may say what I am attempting is methodologically unsound and precritical (mea maxima culpa) because I correlate the synoptic and Johannine accounts in my argument. So since the Passover was meant to recall what God did for His people and individuals – read Exodus 13 verses 8 to 9. Because of our union with Christ, all that’s true of Him is true of us. Amen. That’s why this is so significant. It’s the only table set by a King for those who would betray Him unto death because Jesus is the only King who dies for His servants who betray Him and then sets a table for them. Gabe Fluhrer on '” (19:14). Not only is the omission conspicuous, it appears to be underscored by the words of Jesus in the preceding verse: “Truly, I say to you, I shall not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the Kingdom of God” (Mark 14:25). .” (Mark 14:26). It became evident that Jesus deliberately used the strongest language to convey the connection between his sacrifice as the Passover Lamb and the Eucharist, even in the face of unbelief and scandal (6:60-69). He’s a well-known theologian. And that’s why when you come here tonight and you drink this, you’re doing something else. The Lamb in their midst then and the Lamb in our midst now and forever. We’re betrayers. That’s a grievous error. FOURTH CUP Dr. Scott Hahn -- The Catholic understanding of the Mystical Body of Christ, embodied in the Church and revealed anew in the Holy Eucharist, comes directly from the Bible, according to renowned apologist Dr. Scott Hahn. And what that made it for us then, when we come tonight, is the cup of blessing. To my amazement, he candidly admitted he didn’t have a satisfying answer to his own question. In other words, he who is our celebrant priest and reigning king in the liturgical worship of the heavenly assembly also appears continually as the Passover Lamb of the New Covenant. We’re the Judas in this text. We have betrayed our Master in how we’ve lived and in how we have failed to do what He has called us to do. 8:3). He swore an oath. We are not your hosts. And what we see here, Jesus says, “He goes as it is written of him.” God is sovereign. Wrath of God. During that fateful night, every firstborn son in Egypt perished except those in Israelite families where a lamb without blemish or broken bones (Ex. It’s a cup of protest to the selfishness that engulfs our lives and it says we are identified with another – our sin-bearing, wrath-bearing, grace-bringing substitute, the true Passover Lamb, Jesus. We need a Friend of sinners. It’s meant to arrest all five of our senses. The preacher happened to be a fine Scripture scholar as well as one of my favorite seminary professors, so I was taken aback when he proceeded to show quite convincingly that Jesus could not have meant that. He was very close with his aunt and she died not too long ago. "Jesus said, "It is finished". For them, Jesus skipping the fourth cup could be compared to a priest omitting the words of consecration at Mass. Simultaneously a prequel and a continuing of The Lamb's Supper, this book not only tracks the author's gradual conversion along the path of Evangelicalism to the doorsteps of the Catholic faith, but also … 11:29). With profound spiritual insight, John links Jesus’ “hour of glory” with the supreme manifestation of his love upon the cross (John 3:14, 7:37-39, 8:28, 13:31). Download Full The Fourth Cup Book in PDF, EPUB, Mobi and All Ebook Format. Can I get more than one type of design created? I have a vivid recollection of a conversation with a friend at an Evangelical seminary we attended ten years ago. The conclusion is that Jesus no longer bleeds, suffers, or dies (Heb. My life is hidden with God in Christ Jesus.” The Lord’s Supper looks back, it ministers grace in the present, and it looks forward. I swear to My own hurt, as the Son of God,” is what He’s saying to them, “that this is going to come to pass.”. I was still anti-Catholic in my theological outlook as an Evangelical Protestant, though I must confess I had never thoroughly read a single Catholic work explaining or defending the Church’s teaching. This brings to fulfillment the words used in John’s introduction of Jesus at the start of his Gospel: “Behold the lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world” (1:29). 26:39). 115-118). 25:15). The Passover lamb, you can read about it in Exodus 12, roasted whole, and with bitter herbs and stewed fruit. Serve them.”, There’s a theologian who used to be an atheist by the name of Alister McGrath. Now is the judgment of this world, now shall the ruler of this world be cast out; and I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to myself.’ He said this to show by what death he was to die” (John 12:23, 31-33). Notice he does not conclude, “There is nothing more to be done.” Instead, he says in the very next verse, “Let us, therefore, celebrate the festival, not with the old leaven, the leaven of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth” (1 Cor. Indeed, it will continue that way for God’s family forever into eternity. The fury of God. 10:16). How do we balance those two? On the other hand, some of my parishioners and students were ex-Catholics, and a few of them began warning me about certain “Romish” tendencies they detected in me. Bless us now as we come to Your Table. Note how Jesus’ resolution not to drink “the fruit of the vine” seems to reappear in the scene at Golgotha right before he is crucified: “And they offered him wine mingled with myrrh; but he did not take it” (Mark 15:23). He is enthroned in his resurrected and glorified human body as our High Priest and King (Heb. Jesus says, “Take, this is my body.” What is He saying to them? We’re drinking the cup of the Messiah, the cup of kingdom consummation. It felt as if I had never really comprehended the words before, though I had read the fourth Gospel all the way through many times. First, Jesus’ claim to kingship in John comes precisely at the moment when he appears weakest and most vulnerable–when he is standing accused before Pilate (18:33-37). I’m going home in a few weeks back to South Carolina, and to this day, when I walk through the front door of the house where I grew up, a wall of memories hits me when I smell that house because it smells exactly the same way it did when I was Garner’s age. All the altars that smoke with sacrifices and blood spilled upon them are no longer necessary because the true Lamb is here to die and shed His blood, which is the only blood that takes away sins.” That’s what He’s saying to them. That’s what Jesus is saying. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that His other actions that night indicate a man admittedly distressed but in full possession of himself. This was an important part of the Jewish understanding of Passover during the time of Jesus. The Fourth Cup not only tracks the author’s gradual conversion along the path of Evangelicalism to the doorsteps of the Catholic faith, but also explores the often obscure and misunderstood rituals of Passover and their importance in foreshadowing salvation in Jesus Christ. He is the substitute under whose blood we are saved. If Jesus’ offering has ceased, there would be no basis for his ongoing priesthood, but Jesus’ priesthood is said to be permanent and to “continue forever” (Heb.7:24). And when He says, “Truly I say to you, I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God,” He is taking a solemn oath to them. [Some scholars explain Jesus’ language by identifying it with “the cup of God’s wrath” in the Old Testament prophets (Is. Rooted in Scripture and ingrained with lively history, The Fourth Cup delivers a fascinating view of the bridges that span old and new covenants, and celebrates the importance of the Jewish faith in understanding more fully Christ’s life, death, and resurrection. And the power to be a good host in a selfish world is here tonight as Jesus the Host serves you, serves you at His table and says, “Go and invite others. The Fourth Cup not only tracks the author’s gradual conversion along the path of Evangelicalism to the doorsteps of the Catholic faith, but also explores the often obscure and misunderstood rituals of Passover and their importance in foreshadowing salvation in Jesus Christ. We’re united to Him, and thus the Lord’s Supper looks back to what Jesus did. He appears as the Lamb because his sacrificial offering continues. You see, the Lord’s Table is the only table set by a King for His enemies. In Jesus’ mind, his Eucharistic sacrifice as the Passover lamb of the New Covenant was not finished until Calvary. 28:4; Lev.16:4). The preacher also showed how the standard Evangelical answer is taken from theology and read into the text (“eisegesis”), instead of being drawn from the text interpreted in context (“exegesis”). What it means when we say, “a means of grace,” it’s where God meets us. Mark’s gospel is organized geographically. In his own mind, as both the Firstborn Son and Lamb of God, there was a connection between Passover and the self-sacrifice by which the new covenant was to be established. Let us meet with Jesus and drink that cup of blessing that He has made it for us. Then the food was brought in. 2009 July 7: Dr. Hahn was interviewed by the radio initiative of the Archdiocese of Miami. Though I’m gone, I’m with you.”, And when He says, “This is my blood,” He is saying there will never be a need for sacrifices ever again. Let’s look at these particulars of the institution of the Lord’s Supper. He pays a slave’s price for the King of the universe. All of them are eating. He later consumed the fourth cup while hanging from the Cross. They point out how, subsequently, “he began to be greatly distressed and troubled. He’s the true Passover Lamb who gives us a foretaste of heaven in the Lord’s Supper. “I will bring you out. We were put to death, as it were, in Him. In the middle of the message, he raised a simple question: “In John 19:30, what did Jesus mean when he cried, ‘It is finished’? For the Son of Man goes as it is written of him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! She also published an article arguing that even John’s account of the upper room shares a paschal background, “The Calendar of Qumran and the Passion Narrative in John,” in J. Charlesworth, ed., John and Qumran (London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1972), 62-75. And if you think about it this way, Jesus is the ultimate Host who became a Host in His earthly life to those who should have been His hosts. And so would You meet us in the Word preached and the Word pictured for the glory of the great name of the King who sets the Table, even Jesus our Lord, in whose name alone we humbly pray. Fourth Cup provides design services for a variety of print materials such as brochures and mail pieces in addition to basic Web site and e-mail design. In other words, you had to eat the lamb. Let me try to put it as clearly as I can. I have read criticisms of Jaubert’s thesis, but I don’t feel much force behind them; for a popular summary of the alleged problems, see Raymond Brown, “The Date of the Last Supper,” in The Bible Today Reader (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1973), 322-28.] The structure of the Passover seder, known as the Haggadah, appears to have been formalized long before the time of Jesus. Cusses. It all started with a Sunday morning service at the local Evangelical church which my wife and I attended during our last year at seminary. It’s the perfect fulfillment of that. We’re the ones who would have fled like the others did. This is the family that you swear allegiance to above all others.” Jesus is telling us something about our community here. And here is what He’s done – He drank it in your place. Granted, there are difficulties in that, but her work helps harmonize the five trials of Jesus (Annas, Caiaphas, Pilate, Herod, and Pilate), which fit much easier into a Tuesday to-Friday time frame than in a Thursday-midnight-to-morning frame. The result was to draw a little nearer to what Jesus meant when he said, “It is finished” (John 19:30). After that, the meal was eaten and blessed and the third cup of wine was drunk and then the second part of the Hallel, Psalm 116 to 118. 5:8). And when it was evening, he came with the twelve. Jesus had left unfinished the Passover liturgy in the upper room by not drinking the fourth cup. Instead of proceeding immediately to the climax of the Passover, the drinking of the fourth cup, we read: “And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives” (Mark 14:26). Nobody said, “You know what?” and John leaned over to Peter and goes, “I’ll bet it’s Judas.” That never happened. Copyright, Reproduction & Permission statement. The fourth cup He went to drink was not the cup of consummation at that point. And then, before the fourth cup, you sing the great hil-el psalms: 114, 115, 116, 117 and 118. . By explaining the significance of the drinking of the fourth and final cup in the Old Testament Passover meal ceremony, Dr. Hahn draws a symbolic parallel to Christ's death on the Cross. I don’t know any commentator who denies a connection here. And the other thing to notice here is that all of these men are Jewish men and Jewish men had families; we read about Peter’s mother-in-law. And then the Passover concluded with the drinking of the fourth cup. 16:4ff.). It is all of one piece. John shows how Jesus miraculously provided bread for five thousand after “he had given thanks [eucharistesas],” thereby evoking Eucharistic imagery. It is significant that Jesus in the Gospels uses the word “covenant” on only one occasion, when he institutes the Eucharist during the Passover celebration in the upper room: “And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks [eucharistesas] he gave it to them, and they all drank of it. Likely all of the apostles were married. Part memoir, part detective story, and part biblical study, Scott Hahn's The Fourth Cup opens up new vistas on ancient landscapes while shedding light on his own enduring faith journey. That’s not what He’s saying to us. And each had a symbolic meaning in the feast. The second stage of my rethinking came from studying the Jewish Passover liturgy. That is important because Jesus is telling us that this now, “The people I am gathering around Me, this is the true family of God. His words, therefore, must reflect more than a desire for a last drink of fluid. Moreover, there would be no reason for an earthly altar if Jesus’ offering is ended, which is what I believed as an Evangelical Protestant–until I discovered that Scripture teaches the reverse: “We have an altar from which those who serve the tent have no right to eat” (Heb. All of them left. Through his scholarly insights and important biblical connections, Mass will come alive for you as never before! While it may be difficult for Gentile Christians unfamiliar with the Haggadah to perceive the serious disorder this sequence represents, it is not lost to Jewish readers and students of the seder. It was the cup all of us deserved to drink to its dregs. I will take you for My people.” And so every time a Jewish family got together to celebrate the Passover, these four cups were there and this liturgy was celebrated. Ministers grace to us in the present. 9:25-26). But only John tells us how he responded: “When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, ‘It is finished’; and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit” (19:30). The old person has died, no matter how much we have to live with that old person every day as we feel the pull of sin on our souls. He teaches at Oxford. ... and part biblical study—Scott Hahn opens up new vistas on ancient landscapes while shedding light on his own enduring faith journey. The first cup is called Sanctification (I will bring you out from under the yoke of the Egyptians), the second is Blessing (I will free you from being slaves to them), the third is Redemption (I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and mighty acts of judgment) and the fourth is Acceptance (I will take you as my people and I will be your God. 7:27). The same word for “garment” (chiton) is used in the Old Testament for the official tunic worn by the High Priest in sacrifice (Ex. Let’s pray! Well-known Catholic theologian Dr. Scott Hahn explains Christ's Paschal Sacrifice on the cross as the fulfillment of the traditional fourth cup used in the celebration of the Jewish Passover meal. “ Christ our paschal Lamb has been lightly edited and formatted for the Passover one type of design created drinking!, which was vividly accomplished by the Passover Lamb them. ”, there ’ s nobody out that! 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